The Lady of the Camellias (French: La Dame aux camélias) is a novel by Alexandre Dumas, fils, first published in 1848, that was subsequently adapted for the stage. The Lady of the Camellias premiered at the Theatre de Vaudeville in Paris, France on February 2, 1852. An instant success, Giuseppe Verdi immediately set about to put the story to music. His work became the 1853 opera La Traviata with the female protagonist "Marguerite Gautier" renamed "Violetta Valéry".
In the English-speaking world, The Lady of the Camellias became known as Camille and sixteen versions have been performed at Broadway theatres alone. The "lady of the camellias" is Marguerite Gautier, who is based on Marie Duplessis, the real life lover of author Dumas, fils. (Summary from Wikipedia)